Bilimsel ArastirmaWhat is ScienceWhat are the points to consider in scientific research?

What are the points to consider in scientific research?

Scientific research can be done both to contribute to science and to be beneficial to people.


1.1.Selecting the Topic

The first stage of the research is selecting the topic. . Before choosing the topic, it is necessary to go through a certain thinking process about possible topics by consulting as many sources as possible.

The person doing the research must first find and read many sources written about the subject he is considering. For this purpose, he collects various sources, mostly written by other scientists. Articles are important; in addition, one can also benefit from articles published in professional journals, newly published books and articles in the citation section at the end of the sources read. It is understood which aspects of this subject have been dealt with, to what extent it has been developed, in which direction and what new studies are needed to solve the problem.

We can list the points to be followed in choosing the subject as follows:


The researcher should be interested in the subject he intends to study. The fact that research takes a long time and requires a lot of reading may reduce the researcher's commitment to the subject. For this reason, a favorite topic should be chosen.


Research should not repeat what is known or prove an opinion. In addition, it should be aggregating, explaining the unknowns, and improving the knowns.


The subject must be of such importance that it is worth researching. For this, it may be necessary to consult the opinions of experts in that field. Generally, research that synthesizes, resolves a controversial view, improves our knowledge, and aims to raise the level of people or society is considered "important"[1]. He/she should be qualified to do research and be able to easily access relevant resources [2]. Depending on the nature of the subject, survey, observation, interview, statistical methods, foreign language, old writing, etc. can be used as.

1.1.5.Primary and Secondary Sources

Primary sources are observation, survey, interview, unpublished documents, etc. While some researchers benefit from these sources, others prefer library studies. These are based on thoughts, opinions and reviews said and published by someone else on the subject as sources.

1.1.6.Source Sufficiency.

The continuation of the research depends on finding reliable and sufficient sources. Studies carried out to prove a view are almost entirely based on library sources. Direct compilation of resources through methods such as experiments, surveys, interviews and research does not eliminate the need for library resources.

Failure to find sufficient number and level of resources on the subject to be researched makes it difficult for the research to progress. Choosing relevant ones can be difficult and time consuming. This problem occurs frequently in research conducted on the Internet. In this case, the keywords should be reduced as much as possible and the search should be continued with those that best suit the subject. Keywords used by other researchers can also be examined.


The selected topic should be appropriate in terms of the time that the person who will do the study can spare when the scientific study will be processed[3].

The obligation to complete the research within a certain period of time also affects the determination of the topic to be chosen and its aspect to be examined[4]. >
The narrower the subject, the more in-depth analysis becomes possible. However, it should not be kept so long that it is impossible to get through the subject, nor should it be so narrow that it makes the research meaningless[5]. At the end of the thinking process through the observations made, the problem that arises in the researcher's mind and a solution to be proposed against that problem emerge. This constitutes the thesis of the research.


2.1. Establishing a Hypothesis (Thesis of the Research)

Hypothesis is developed based on a certain institutional basis and enables the testing of certain relationships that are claimed to exist between variables[6]. Every research must have a thesis.

The thesis created at the beginning is a temporary solution to the problem. As the research progresses, the thesis can be changed or developed in accordance with the result.

The thesis is a proposal whose accuracy has not been tested. Preliminary studies are created based on experience, observation and reasoning, and there is a confidence that the result of the study will be correct. If it is not correct, the results can still be published. In any case, this contributes to the development of science, because no other scientist has examined the same subject.

The thesis sentence must be interesting. It can be expressed plainly or as a question sentence. The proposal must be simple to understand and intriguing.

2.2. Determining the Research Technique

The method is of great importance in scientific studies. Depending on the nature of the subject and the interest of the researcher, surveys, observations, interviews, statistical information, experiments, etc. can be used. Methods such as can be used. Determining the method of working with primary sources does not eliminate the need for library research.

Today, researchers have to benefit from Internet resources as well as traditional library resources. Because some of these resources are available in printed form in libraries, some are only available electronically. Especially article indexes are very important.

In the method phase, it is also necessary to decide how the notes to be kept and the sources accessed will be recorded. One of these methods is the classic card method. Here, the source and information obtained from the sources are written on cards prepared for this purpose. The form on which the sources are written is called bibliography, and the cards on which the notes taken are written are called note-taking cards.

Sometimes, sources and information are recorded in a specially kept notepad or notebook. All information is gathered together.

Another method is to save the sources and notes in files in a folder on the computer. This method is more preferred. Especially the OneNote program, developed as an alternative to the card method, is preferred by scientists.


3.1. Preparing a Draft Plan

The tentative plan is a draft showing what kind of study the researcher wants to do, using a few studies he has just read on the subject. This draft shows the path the researcher will follow during his study. Preparing a temporary plan at the beginning saves time. As the details of the research are revealed, changes are made in the provisional plan[7].

It may be useful for the researcher to write the thesis statement at the beginning of the paper when preparing the draft plan and making changes to it. Thus, the scope and limitations of the subject are taken into consideration.

The draft plan reveals the flow order of main ideas and supporting information and the relationships between them. Each of the headings and subheadings is given a number or letter according to the system followed. Writing subheadings starts from the inside by allowing a certain amount of space. Writing the subheadings further in than the top headings is to show more clearly how the ideas are connected to each other.

3.2. Preparing a Temporary Bibliography

After determining the topic, the researcher starts his source research and creates a source list or bibliography by recording the sources he finds. New ones are added to the first prepared list of sources, and some are later removed from the list as they are deemed unnecessary.

The sources used in a research are many and varied. Books, general and professional articles, newspapers, statistics, reports, seminar proceedings, private letters, etc. are some of them. The researcher should collect all the sources he sees on the subject.

3.2.1.Starting Source Research

It is useful to start the research from a large and general library. This could be, for example, the university library in the city [8].

The first thing the researcher will do is to consult sources where he can find relevant books and articles. In this regard, YÖK institution has made a system for searching theses and articles, you can also benefit from this site: Catalogs

Catalogs are organized according to author title and subject. However, it would be more accurate to start catalog research with the subject.

Librarians use a standard subject heading when classifying books and other materials. . Although there are some minor differences between libraries, the Subject Heading Classification of the American Library of Congress is generally taken as basis. This publication, which consists of four volumes, is found in the library's reference library or near the catalog cabinets[9].

Every book in the library has a reference number indicating its location on the shelves. This number is usually written on the back of the book. Indexes

Another source that the researcher can refer to is article indexes. Indexes are resources that regularly include articles published in magazines and sometimes chapters in books according to their subjects. They show the author, title, date and periodic periodicity of articles and other articles published on various subjects. Article indexes are mostly kept in the reference sections of libraries.

Article Indexes can be public or private. General indexes contain articles and writings on various subjects. However, special indexes are organized according to certain subjects.

In addition to library catalogs and article indexes, another source where the desired books can be found is bibliographies. Bibliographies are sources containing lists of published books, general and special. They can be.

There are also bibliographies for commercial purposes. These are also useful in determining what books are available on the subject. For example, Books in Print (New York: Bowker) and Cumulative Book Index (New York: Wilson) are such commercial catalogs[10].

The researcher can also access other sources from the bibliographies at the end of books and articles. For this reason, finding a few recently published books and articles on the subject he studies and examining their bibliographies enables the identification of many more sources.

3.2.2.Other Libraries

Researchers can start their studies from the university libraries they are affiliated with. However, not all resources may be available in university libraries. Therefore, it is useful to do resource research in libraries other than these.

a. Provincial Public Libraries: These are more general in nature. However, it is very likely that some resources related to that region that are not available elsewhere can be found in provincial public libraries.

b.Professional Chambers, Associations, Society or Union Libraries: These are organizations formed by people who do the same professions or are interested in the same subjects. These may have their own special collections or libraries that may be of interest to the researcher. For example, libraries, statistics, yearbooks, reports, etc. published by chambers of commerce and industry and professional chambers. They are important resources for researchers.

c.Other Resources: These include embassies, newspapers, large enterprises, municipalities and other public or private organizations' libraries, research and private records, etc.

Especially some embassies have very rich libraries. For example, American Libraries operating under the American Embassy in our country are a very rich resource for researchers.

Many public institutions and similar institutions in Turkey also have very rich libraries. Among these, we can particularly mention the State Planning Organization, State Statistical Institute, Turkish Standards Institute, the Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey and the libraries of various ministries.

3.2.3.Arrangement of Provisional Bibliography

The researcher must record the material determined by the source research according to a system to be applied. Thus, a temporary bibliography of the research emerges. In order for a source to be found again when searched or to be shown in its footnote or in the Bibliography at the end, it is necessary to record all information about that source completely.
According to a known method, sources are recorded in bibliography cards specially made for this purpose. When resources are scarce, they can also be recorded in a special notebook.

3.2.4.Bibliography Cards

Bibliography cards 7.5 x 12.5 cm. They are standard pieces of paper cut to size from cardboard. It is very easy to alphabetize and classify the sources, each of which is processed on a separate card. Bibliography cards are stored in a box or receipt cabinet. In the later stages, when writing the bibliography list at the end of the text and introducing the sources when applying for the first time in the footnote citation system, it will be sufficient to just take out the relevant cards and look at them.

Bibliography Card Example [11]:

330.9 DPT Library

Kazgan Gülten
Evolution of Economic Thought or Political Economy. 4th Edition
Istanbul: Remzi Kitabevi 1989.

Examines the stages through which economic thought takes its data. He defends the thesis that Economic Theory does not have universal validity.

For books, the following information should be recorded in the temporary bibliography[12]:

Information about the author (The author and, if any, those who contributed such as translator, compiler, preparer, etc.) Title of the book (with subheadings, if any), number of editions and publication information of the book (place of publication, publishing house, publication date)

To distinguish it from other information, the book title is written in italics or bold font with underlining. In the upper left corner of the book card, it is also necessary to record the reference number of the book in the catalog and the library where it is located in case of working in more than one library.

Periodics are sources published at certain time intervals. The bibliographic information required for a periodical article is slightly different from that required for books. The following information is needed for these sources:

Author, title of the article, name of the periodical, volume and issue number (and date) and page numbers of the article. The name of the article is written in italics or bold font, underlined like in books.

Article Bibliography Card Sample [13]:

Seyidoğlu Halil

"Are We Ready for Electronic Commerce? "
Information and Society Volume I Issue 2 (June 1999) pp. 59-62.

Examines the conveniences provided by electronic commerce as a new trading method. He discusses the necessary conditions for the development of electronic commerce in Turkey.

3.2.5.Bookmarks on the Internet

After researching on the Internet and determining the resource lists, the desired resources can be marked and saved in a file[14]. All you need to do is open the address marking file in the program and click on the selected book. Thanks to the book marking function, the difficulties of writing long addresses separately each time and the possibility of incorrect copying while performing these operations are eliminated.

In this way, the researcher organizes a kind of electronic bibliography by identifying useful sources on the Internet and adding the notes he takes to them. He then returns to the sources he has marked and reads and evaluates them[15].


4.1. Summarizing and Transfer

Reading and note-taking activities are carried out in line with the determined hypothesis and temporary study plan. While reading, notes are taken of the parts deemed important regarding the thesis topic. Because a person cannot always keep every resource he uses with him, and it may not be easy to remember a good idea that comes to mind for a moment. Just like the resource gathering phase, one should be selective in the reading and note-taking phase. When taking notes from the source being examined, the following points should be taken into consideration:
c. If the researcher's basic knowledge about the subject is weak, he should first examine general sources and then advanced sources.
d. One should not try to write down everything, useful notes should be taken.

The researcher takes 2 types of notes from the sources he uses[17] :

1) Summarizing: It is the writing down of the information in the main source in the researcher's own words and in abbreviated form. During summarizing, information related to the research is abbreviated and noted, while unimportant or irrelevant information is discarded.

2) Transfer: The information in the main source is not abbreviated. This is done in 2 ways:

a.Transferring with Change: The information in the main source is recorded in the notes in the researcher's own words, without abbreviation. Although it is done in the researcher's own words, it is distinguished from summarizing. Because the information in the main source is not abbreviated; Changes are made in words and expressions only for clarity.

b. Quoting Exactly: The quoted text is the same as the main source in terms of both words and punctuation marks. Since no change has been made in the quote, it is separated from the quotation by changing it.

In order to give the full meaning of the information in scientific, technical and legal sources and to show that it is understood correctly, this information must be conveyed verbatim. Again, in order to add liveliness and reliability to the opinion, direct quotes from the words of famous people or authorities can be used.

4.2. Note-Taking Principles

When taking notes from a source, it should be ensured that the notes taken comply with the following basic principles:

1) Fitness for Purpose: While taking notes, the researcher constantly carries out a selection and separation process. This is the process of separating the necessary from the unnecessary and taking only what is necessary.
2) Conformity to the Source: Each note taken can reflect the meaning of the source from which it was taken. It is a mistake that is difficult to forgive to portray someone as having written or said something that he did not write or say.
3) Authenticity: Validity and reliability of the data collected in the research are the unchanging criteria of the scientific value to be given to them.

4.3. Recording Notes[18]

a)Note-taking Cards: The notes taken are written on cards all cut to the same size. The size of the cards may vary depending on the length of the information noted. However, cards that are half a page long are generally most suitable.

The note taken for each information should be recorded on a separate card. Including more than one different information on the same card creates difficulties.

If a note does not fit on the card on which it is recorded, the writing should not be continued on the back of the card and the two should be attached to each other by moving to a new card.

An example of how to write notes on the card is shown below:

Note-taking Card Example:

Research Model Karasar s. 36
" ... is the arrangement of the necessary conditions for the collection and analysis of data in a suitable and economical process for the purpose of the research. "

The main text is written in the upper right corner of the card with an abbreviation that introduces the source. The page number(s) of the information in the source are displayed. Since all information about the source is included in the bibliography list, it is not necessary to repeat it on the notation card; It may be sufficient to simply write the author's surname. If an author has more than one work or if two authors have the same surname, then the first name or abbreviated book title is stated along with the author's surname. In cases where the author is not available, it is necessary to put the title of the book or article (in abbreviated form) instead.
The author's surname (or title) is separated by a comma and the page number is written.
If the information used is taken from several consecutive pages instead of a single page, the starting point in the main source They are shown after the author's surname by placing a (-) sign between the and end pages. If the information comes from non-consecutive pages, it is necessary to write the page number of the main source of that information before the first word of the information taken down.
The subject of the information taken down is stated in a short and concise manner in the upper left corner of the card.
When the note-taking process progresses to a certain extent. The cards are arranged according to the headings in the temporary plan.
After the cards are put in order, the situation reached by the research is seen better; In addition to missing or weak sections, repetitions and suspicious points are revealed. In the weak sections, the research is deepened, redundancies are removed and repeated points are combined.
The research is constantly monitored during the reading and note-taking processes. If the information obtained and the interpretations do not provide results that fully support the research, it is necessary to change it to fit the facts
b) Keeping a Notebook: Sometimes the notes taken are recorded in a single notebook. Memo pad pages are suitable for writing long notes or large tables.

Confusing notes with irrelevant text or notes creates difficulties. That's why a single notebook should be kept. It is also useful to indicate the date on which each information written in the notebook was noted down. Thus, the course of development of the research is revealed.

Also, sometimes very useful ideas about the research can suddenly emerge. It is necessary to take notes immediately so as not to forget them. Therefore, the researcher should get into the habit of carrying his notebook with him at all times.

c) Photocopies: This method can be used due to reasons such as length, complexity, not being easily obtained or the possibility of making mistakes while taking notes.

It can be obtained in this way. The information obtained should be the source of the notes to be read and taken later. In other words, this information should not be considered as a direct research note.

d) Keeping Notes on the Computer: The researcher keeps a separate folder for each research; In this folder, you can open as many files as you need (for example, subsection draft text, bibliography sources, notes taken from the Internet, book marking, etc.).

Desired edits can be made on the information transferred to the computer. For example, information can be brought to the screen again and again, reviewed, rewritten, combined and moved to another location. In addition, notes can be safely preserved in the computer memory, copied to a floppy disk and easily moved to another location.

4.4. How Should Reading Be?

One should definitely be selective in reading; Only the relevant ones should be read, not everything that can be found. Thus, there is no loss of time and effort. Reading should be started from general sources on the subject and detailed ones should be examined later.

Reading can be done skimming or in detail. It can be skipped after reading by skimming over the details. By browsing, some keywords, titles, figures, etc.

In detailed reading, the part related to the research is read carefully and notes are taken.

In addition, the reading should be carried out critically and the reliability of the source and the impartiality of the author should always be taken into consideration. In fact, critical evaluation should be made not only during reading but also as the research continues. Because some sources may not even be worth reading.


5.1. Processing of Data

Research does not end with the collection of necessary data. The collected data must be processed, analyzed, interpreted and evaluated in a way that allows the development of theoretical and/or practical solutions to the research problem. The originality of the research becomes evident and gains integrity at this stage.

5.2. Data Analysis

When making a research plan, what kind of data will be collected, how they will be processed and analyzed, and how possible results will be interpreted and evaluated are determined by intermediate lines. If the researcher cannot clearly see in advance how he will evaluate the data he will collect, it is best not to initiate data collection.

5.3. Interpretation of Data

In order for a research to be considered completed, compiled library resources must be read and evaluated, methods such as experiment, observation, interview, statistical analysis must be applied and the hypothesis must be evaluated in the light of the results obtained. The research is not considered complete until all these processes are completed.

It is a wrong practice to start writing before the data is processed, the research results are obtained, and a definitive conclusion is reached about the accuracy of the hypothesis.

In addition, in a research, the researcher only uses the sources examined without adding his own creative ideas. Research conducted by summarizing is not actually scientific research.


After the researcher analyzes the notes he took and the information he collected and reaches a certain conclusion by adding his own thoughts and comments, he can start writing the first draft.

No matter how well planned and purposefully developed the scientific research study is. If it is not written in a way that others can understand and apply, it is incomplete. Such a report is considered inadequate in communicating with others. Because another aim of the researcher is to exchange information with others. The desired communication cannot be achieved from reports that do not comply with the rules of form and expression. Therefore, research reports prepared in accordance with certain rules are more valuable as they will make it easier to understand the subject better, contribute to it, and make supervision or criticism. For this reason, the final step of a research conducted in accordance with scientific methods is to compile this research into a report. This is what is called report writing.

6.1. First Draft

After the plan takes its final form, the information obtained begins to be written down section by section. The most important thing in writing the first draft is to maintain the flow of ideas in an orderly manner; Beauty of style and choosing appropriate words remain in the background. The first draft should be written without wasting time with sentence corrections.

Also, in the first draft, it is necessary to write down the ideas rather than wasting time transferring graphical text and placing tables. Only the locations of tables and graphs should be determined for later placement.

It would not be right to start writing the draft with an introduction. The introduction and conclusion sections of the research should be written last. The reason for this is that preparing a report regardless of what is entered allows the researcher to work more freely. Similarly, what conclusion will be reached will be revealed after the report is written.

If a footnote system will be used in citing sources, footnotes should not be written in their final form in the first draft. In the first draft, it is stated which words will be written after the footnotes; After these words, a parenthesis can be opened and information briefly introducing the source, such as the author's surname and the page number of the source, can be written.

6.2. Correcting the First Draft

After the first draft is written, it is time to read it from beginning to end, correct it in terms of grammar and style, and fill in the blanks.

The process of correcting the first draft; It consists of correcting ideas that are not lined up properly and relocating paragraphs if necessary. In addition, tables and graphs that are thought to be placed later in the first draft are also placed at this stage.

It is necessary to determine the introduction and conclusion sections that were not written in the first draft at this stage. These sections are very important for people who want to get a general idea about the research. For this reason, sufficient space should be allocated for the introduction and conclusion sections.

The introduction begins by clearly stating the research topic. Information should be given such as why the topic was chosen, what the hypothesis was, what benefits were expected, what the method was applied, and within what framework the topic was limited.

In the conclusion section, the findings of the research are stated. Original contributions, along with the researcher's personal comments and suggestions, are presented here and the main points are re-emphasized.

After the introduction and conclusion are written, footnotes are written in the designated places. In citing references with footnotes, the places to be cited are numbered sequentially and the sources are stated at the bottom of the same page. If a source is introduced for the first time, all information about it is given in the footnote. If the same source is referenced for the second time or later, it will be sufficient to write a short introduction such as the author's surname and the page numbers.

6.3. Examining Style

Style is very important in written expression. Every writer has his own style. The words used, aesthetic features and the order of ideas are the factors that determine the style. When choosing the style, the audience addressed and the message to be conveyed are also important. A text is required to have the following stylistic features:

a)Clarity: Thoughts should be expressed directly and clearly.

b)Simplicity: Short and concise sentences should be used instead of fancy expressions. Unnecessary words should be avoided.

c) Fluency: All ideas should unite around the main topic, there should be no gaps between them.

Each paragraph should explain a separate idea. If the main idea is given in the first sentence, the sentences following this sentence should be ordered from important to unimportant. If it is given in the last sentence, then the sentences are ordered from unimportant to important.

A separate title is given when conveying a new idea. However, care should be taken to maintain the commitment between ideas.

6.4. Final Reading

During the final reading, the text is corrected in terms of style. More correct words and expressions are selected, punctuation errors and sentence errors are eliminated. The compatibility of the citations with the main text is reviewed. It may also be useful to read the text out loud to check the style.

6.5. Final Form of the Text

After the corrections were made, the text has reached the writing stage. The texts are generally written on a computer.

The written or printed text should be re-read from beginning to end, letter by letter, word by word. In addition, signs and texts that cannot be placed using a computer are written by hand with the help of a black-tipped pen. Meanwhile, all data in the text should be compared with the originals and all structure and punctuation errors should be corrected; Care should be taken to write foreign words and uppercase and lowercase letters correctly.


The works produced by creative people such as writers, artists, scientists are considered as intellectual products. These people have property rights over the works they create, and these rights are called intellectual property rights.

Copyright or intellectual property rights are protected by law in every country. Someone else cannot reproduce the book written by an author or the research done by him or her and cannot use it for commercial purposes without permission.

In our country, there is a "Law on Intellectual and Artistic Works" prepared based on international agreements on this subject[19]. According to this law, all kinds of scientific and literary works, computer programs, musical works, fine arts works, architecture and cinema works are accepted as intellectual and artistic works and are subject to protection.

Copyrights also allow the translation of a printed work into another language. It also prevents sales without purchasing. Again, a person does not have the right to translate and publish the work of a foreign author without permission.

Copyright laws and protection of property rights were enacted for purposes such as encouraging creative products in the field of science and literature and preventing injustice. However, copyright laws do not prevent citations for scientific purposes. However, two conditions must be met:

1) Quotations must be made to the extent required by the scientific purpose.

2) The source must definitely be cited.


A research will have meaning when it is carried out in accordance with scientific research methods and techniques from the very beginning to the end and the researcher's own careful and creative work is also included. It is not enough to apply only research methods and techniques from a narrow perspective. First of all, research is a team effort. A team work should not be perceived as the researcher working with a numerically large number of people; It should be considered as ensuring cooperation and coordination in the studies to be carried out. Here too, communication is a phenomenon and process that the researcher will constantly refer to. A good researcher must also be a good communicator. This is not an innate talent; It is a characteristic that is acquired through education, or at least developed and disciplined.


[1] SEYİDOĞLU Halil: Scientific Research and Writing Handbook 8th Edition Güzem Publications Istanbul 2000
p. 92.

[2] RELIGIONS Zeynel: Scientific Research and Internet-Connected Information Centers 2nd Edition Ekin Kitabevi Bursa
2000 p. 17-19.

[3] YAZICI Mehmet: Scientific Study and Writing Methods M.Ü. Nihad Sayar Education Foundation Publication Istanbul
1993 p. 105.

[4] SEYİDOĞLU Halil: Ibid. s. 94.

[5] SEYİDOĞLU Halil: Ibid. s. 95.

[6] KARASAR Niyazi: Report Preparation in Research 8th Edition Alkim Publications Ankara 1995 p.31.

[7] RELIGIONS Zeynel: Ibid. s. 22.

[8] DEES Robert : Writing The Modern Research Paper Second Edition Allyn and Bacon Boston 1997. p.57.

[9] SEYİDOĞLU Halil : Ibid. s. 105.

[10] SEYİDOĞLU Halil: Ibid. s. 108-109.

[11] SEYİDOĞLU Halil: Ibid. 113.

[12] BELL Judith : Doing Your Research Project : A Guide for First Time Researchers in Education and
Social Sciences Second Edition Open University Press Buchingham 1993 p.29-29.
< br>[13] SEYİDOĞLU Halil Ibid. s. 115.

[14] RODRİGUES Dawn : The Research Paper and The Web Upper Saddle River N.J. Prentice Hall 1997

[15] SEYİDOĞLU Halil Ibid. p.116.

[16] ARIKAN Rauf: Research Techniques and Report Writing 3rd Edition Gazi Kitabevi Ankara 2000 p.235.

[17] SEYİDOĞLU Halil: Ibid. p.117.

[18] SEYİDOĞLU Halil: Ibid. p.119.

ARIKAN Rauf: Research Techniques and Report Writing 3rd Edition Gazi Kitabevi
Ankara 2000.

BELL Judith : Doing Your Research Project : A Guide for First Time Researchers in Education and Social Sciences Second Edition Open University Press Buchingham 1993.

DEES Robert : Writing The Modern Research Paper Second Edition Allyn and
Bacon Boston 1997.

RELIGIONS Zeynel : Scientific Research and Internet-Connected Information Centers 2nd Edition Ekin Kitabevi Bursa 2000.< br>

KARASAR Niyazi: Report Preparation in Research 8th Edition Alkim Publications
Ankara 1995.

RODRİGUES Dawn: The Research Paper and The Web Upper Saddle River N.J. Prentice Hall 1997.

SEYİDOĞLU Halil: Scientific Research and Writing Handbook 8th Edition Güzem Publications İstanbul 2000.

WRITTEN Mehmet: Scientific Study and Writing Methods M.Ü. Nihad Sayar Education Foundation Publication Istanbul 1993.

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