Bilimsel ArastirmaWhat is ScienceScientific research steps

Scientific research steps

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Scientific research begins with examination and questioning. The scientist or student is curious about what he sees around him, investigates it and wants to know its source, so the research begins. For the research to be realistic, it must be based on scientific sources. The most important part of scientific sources is that they are obtained through experiments and observations, not through hearsay. New documents are created by examining the written documents left behind by previous scientists and blending them with new findings, this is called scientific research.

1-Determining the project topic

When doing a scientific research, the first question is asked and thus the topic is chosen: Why is the sun yellow? Why does the moon rotate? Why is the sky blue? Is there water on Mars? What color is the hottest star?

When choosing a research topic, first take notes and see what you have. Do not immediately choose the first question that comes to your mind as a research topic. Choose the most interesting one and remember that others may have asked the same question.

2. Gathering Information

After the research topic is determined, the second stage is to collect information. When collecting information, it is necessary to look at the sources written by previous scientists. If you need to do research for a school assignment, you do not need to go after scientists; you can also cite magazines, newspapers and websites as sources.

Research assistants and postgraduate students who want to become scientists mostly refer to information guides called SSCI (Social Sciences Citation Index) and learn the names of scientists who have worked in that field and the subjects they work on. A graduate student should definitely follow scientists, especially someone who prepares a PhD thesis claims to make a new discovery by examining the work of other scientists. He then records his studies in the SSCI indexes and leaves resources to help future scientists years later.


3. Scientific Method

Scientific method; To reach true knowledge, it is necessary to approach with suspicion and question even science itself. A scientist can reach true knowledge when he questions everything. After making sure that the sources he has accessed are accurate, he takes logical and plausible information and begins his research.

The branch of science that researches what science and truth are is called Epistemology, and this branch of science asks what is truth. The two basic issues on which science is based are the concept of "Paradigm" explained by Thomas Kuhn and the concept of "falsifiability" introduced by Karl Popper. In order to call a subject a scientific study, its falsity becomes as important as its accuracy. For example, "Are there Aliens in the Universe?" The scientist who asks: must travel around all the planets and make observations. In this case, he cannot claim to have done a scientific study when he started this research, since he will not be able to finish his work in his lifetime.


4. Controlled Experiments and Result Records

If the research topic you are doing can be proven with an experiment, doing so and writing down the results is a scientific research. Write down what is necessary when starting the experiment and write down the results after the experiment is over. If something goes wrong during the experiment, it would be useful to write it down. This reveals that the experiment you are doing has wrong aspects and the risk of error.

5. Display with Graphs and Tables

The information found as a result of experiments and research should be drawn in tables and written down one by one. The amounts of substances used in the experiment, the duration of the experiment, and the results obtained from the experiment should be drawn in a table. If necessary, the results are shown as percentages with pie charts and pie charts.


6. Producing Scientific Articles and Documents

The most important part you need to do after the study is completed is to write down the information you have obtained. The person reading the study should see what topics you have collected information on and understand the event in its simplest form. If you are doing research as a school assignment, you can highlight important parts with colored pencils and explain with pictures.

If you are writing a realistic scientific study or master's thesis, you should follow the writing rules set by universities. These rules include everything from page width to font size and prevent each scientist from choosing the font size according to his/her own taste.


7. Presentation

When you do scientific research, you need to present it to people. If it is a school assignment, you should explain it verbally to your friends and teacher and present the subject in detail. Because you are the person who knows the subject best and your audience wants to learn about it.

Similarly, while doing a scientific study, master's students make a presentation to the department head and other professors at the university, PhD students express themselves in front of a board of professors and answer the questions they ask, showing that they have mastered the subject and how seriously they have done research.

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