Bilimsel ArastirmaWhat is ScienceWhat are the scientific article writing rules?

What are the scientific article writing rules?

History of writing Scientific Articles (IMRAD)

"What science seeks to sort out, art seeks to provoke - what is fatal to one mystery is vital to another." John Fowles


Humans have been able to communicate for thousands of years. However, scientific communication as we know it today is relatively new. The first journals were published only 300 years ago, and the organization of the scientific articleIMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion) has evolved over the last 100 years.
Information, scientific or otherwise, cannot be communicated effectively until the appropriate communication mechanism is established. Prehistoric people were able to communicate verbally. But undoubtedly every new generation; Without written records to source it, it essentially started along the same lines, as information was lost as quickly as it was acquired.

Cave paintings and writings carved on rocks were among humanity's first attempts to leave documents for future generations. In a sense, we today are lucky that our ancestors chose such an environment that keeps some of their first messages alive. However, the messages on less durable materials could have been lost (Perhaps many of them were). On the other hand, communication through such a medium was incredibly difficult. For example, imagine the distribution problems the postal service would have today if 50 kg stones were communications material? Don't they have enough trouble with 10g letters?
The first book we know of is a Chaldean account of the flood. This story, which gives Genesis about 2000 years ago, dates back to B.C. It was written on a tile tablet around 4000 BC.

The need for a communications medium that was lightweight and portable was clear. The first successful setting was in B.C. It is papyrus (pages made from the papyrus plant are glued and tied to a wooden piece by creating a 20-40 ft long roll) that began to be used around 2000. B.C. In 190 B.C., parchment (made from animal skin) began to be used. The Greeks created large libraries in Ephesus, Pergamum (now Turkey) and Alexandria. According to Plutarch, in the library in Pergamum, B.C. In the 40 years there were 200,000 volumes of books (48).

M.S. In 105 BC, the Chinese discovered paper, the modern medium of communication. However, academic knowledge could not be widely disseminated because no effective means of increasing communication existed.

Perhaps the single greatest invention in the intellectual history of mankind was the printing press. The first mobile species was discovered in A.D. Although it was invented in China around 1100, the Western world took the credit from A.D. He gave his 42-line Bible to Gutenberg, who printed it in 1455. Gutenberg's invention was immediately put into effective use throughout Europe. By 1500, thousands of copies of thousands of books (called incunabula) had been printed.

The first scientific journals appeared in 1655, coincidentally when two different journals began publication at the same time - Journal des Scavans/France and Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London/England. Since then, journals have served as the most important communication medium in science. Currently, approximately 70,000 scientific and technical journals are published all over the world.


The first magazines published articles of the type we call visual. Typically, a scientist would write: First I saw this, then I saw that, or First I did this, then I did that. Mostly, these observations were in simple time order.

This visual style was appropriate for the type of science being described at the time. In fact, this direct narrative style is still used today in case reports in medicine, geological studies, etc. It is used in "letters" magazines on their subjects.
l9. Towards the second half of the century, science began to accelerate with increasing complexity. Particularly due to the work of Robert Koch, who finalized the virus theory of disease, and Louis Pasteur, who used the fermentation system and developed the pure-culture study method, both science and the explanation of science made significant progress.

Then, methodology became important. To silence his critics, many of whom fanatically believed in instant reproduction, Pasteur found it necessary to describe his experiments in minute detail. Since reasonably responsible colleagues were able to replicate Pasteur's experiments, the reproducibility of experiments became a central doctrine of the philosophy of science, and a discrete methods section led to the significantly structured IMRAD format (IMRAD stands for Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion). is the resulting acronym)B.A.
Since I have been close to the science of microbiology for years, I may be focusing on this branch of science. But still, I truly believe that treating infectious diseases is the greatest advance in the history of science. Moreover, I believe that a brief repetition of this story can illustrate science and science reporting. Those who believe that atomic energy or molecular biology are the most important advance can still appreciate the model of modern science that the infectious disease story reveals.

The work of Koch and Pasteur was followed by the work of Paul Ehrlich in the early 1900s and the work of Gerhard Domagh (sulfa drugs) in the 1930s. II. World War II brought about the development of penicillin (first introduced by Alexander Fleming in 1929). Streptomycin was introduced in 1944 and was used during World War II. Just after World War II, a mad but brilliant search for miracle drugs created tetracyclines and dozens of other antibiotics. Thus, these developments; It resulted in the eradication of epidemics such as tuberculosis, diphtheria, malaria, typhoid and (via vaccination) polio.

These miracles, II. It made sense that our nation's investment in research would increase as it overflowed from medical laboratories after World War II. This positive breakthrough in the promotion of science (in 1957) was immediately combined with the negative factor that occurred when the Russians launched Sputniki. Is it because of hope that the government poured millions of additional dollars into American scientific research?

Money produced science. And science, articles. Mountains! The result was a strong pressure on existing journals (and many new ones). In their own defence, if for no other reason, journal editors began to demand that manuscripts be well edited and condensed. The pages in the magazine were too valuable to be wasted on repetition and words. l9. The IMRAD format, which has been slowly advancing since the end of the century, has found almost universal use in research journals. Some editors supported IMRAD because they believed it was the simplest and most logical way to communicate research results. Others perhaps did not believe in simple IMRAD logic; However, they joined the train because IMRAD's rigidity really saved space (and cost) in magazines. IMRAD has made life easier for editors and reviewers by indexing important parts of the text.

IMRAD logic can be described in the form of questions:
Which problem was examined? Answer: Introduction=Introduction.
How was the problem examined? Answer: Methods= Methods.
What was found? Answer: Results=Results.
What do these mean? Answer: Discussion=Discussion.

now, the simple IMRAD logic helps the author in editing and writing the text; It is clearly seen that it provides an easy road map for editors, reviewers and ultimately the readers who read the article.

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